Paula patton smoking

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Despite well-established gender differences in adult smoking behaviors, relatively little is known about gender discrepancies in smoking behaviors among adolescents, and even less is known about the role of gender in smoking cessation among teen populations.

All participants enrolled in the N-O-T program between and All participants completed a series of questionnaires prior to and immediately following the cessation intervention. Analyses examined gender differences in a range of smoking variables, cessation success and direct and indirect effects on changes in smoking behaviors. Females were more likely to have a parents, siblings and romantic partners who smokes, perceive those around them will support a cessation effort, smoke more prior to intervention if they have friends who smoke, and to have lower cessation motivation and confidence if they have a parent who smokes.

Conversely, males were more likely to have lower cessation motivation and confidence and be less likely to quit if they have a friend who smokes. Gender plays Paula patton smoking important role in adolescent smoking behavior and smoking cessation. Further research is needed to understand how these differences may be incorporated into intervention de to Paula patton smoking cessation success rates among this vulnerable population of smokers. Despite an overall decrease in smoking prevalence since the s Nelson et al. However, much of this work has focused on adult or young adult populations.

Comparatively fewer studies have examined these differences among adolescents, and even fewer have specifically explored gender differences related to teen smoking cessation. The present study examined gender differences in six ly found to be associated with smoking cessation among adolescents: 1 smoking history, 2 readiness to quit, 3 social contexts, 4 perceived support for cessation, 5 nicotine dependence, and 6 attitudes toward smoking. Additionally, this study examined direct and indirect effects of these variables on smoking behavior by gender.

Participants were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, friends, and, if they had a current romantic partner, they were asked the smoking status of that person. Additionally, participants were asked if each of these people would support their cessation efforts. Participants responded to items assessing their perceived reasons for smoking, including: 1 positive reinforcement smoking for the positive effects2 negative reinforcement smoking to avoid negative effects such as withdrawal3 addiction smoking because of nicotine addictionand 4 negative consequences smoking less to avoid negative outcomes.

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Analyses reveal a of gender differences in smoking history, social environment, perceived support for cessation, nicotine dependence, and reasons for smoking, see Table 1 for details. Likewise, Paula patton smoking linear regression models, gender did not predict changes in CPD from baseline to post-intervention i. To examine direct and indirect gender effects on changes in smoking behaviors, we use structural equation models SEM. Initial models included reasons for smoking, perceived support for cessation, social environment, smoking history and nicotine dependence as predictors of baseline CPD, readiness to quit, and changes in CPD post-intervention, see variables listed in Table 1.

The final model in Figure 1 displays only ificant pathways. SEM models were evaluated using multi-group analyses allowing for comparison of differences in direct and indirect pathways between males and females. reveal gender differences in direct and indirect pathways influencing changes in CPD post-intervention, see Figure 1.

For females having a friend who smokes had a direct influence on the baseline CPD. Interestingly, motivation to quit and confidence in quitting had direct effects on changes CPD post-intervention for females only. For males, having friends who smoke had an indirect effect on both motivation to quit and confidence in quitting. For females having a parent who smokes had indirect effects on motivation to quit, confidence in quitting and changes in CPD post-intervention.

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Having a parent who smokes had neither direct nor indirect effects for males. In fact, the only variable that had an effect indirect on changes in CPD post-intervention for males was reasons for smoking addiction. The present study highlights gender differences in individual and contextual variables that may influence cessation. Numerous baseline gender differences were founds in smoking behaviors. Many of these findings, such as differences in length of smoking history and the of CPD, are not surprising and are consistent with research.

Other findings, however, reveal suggest important gender differences in teen smokers seeking to quit. For example, it was found that females were consistently surrounded by more smokers in their social environments: females were more likely to have parents, siblings and romantic partners who smoke. Moreover, whereas both males and females had equal perceptions that parents would be supportive of a quit attempt, females were more likely to perceive that peers, siblings and romantic partners would be supportive.

Finally, although males and females had similar scores on the mFTQ, males were more likely to smoke sooner after waking and to rate the first cigarette of the day as the most satisfying — two indicators reflecting greater nicotine uptake and dependence e. Our illustrate important gender differences among teens who smoke with regard to having a romantic partner, and whether their romantic partner smokes.

research has identified a link between dating and smoking Martin et al. Future studies should further explore gender differences in the influence of romantic partners on smoking behaviors as well as cessation. Our findings also demonstrated important gender differences on how key variables work together to influence smoking cessation outcomes. For example, it was found that parental smoking had strong indirect effects for females on motivation to quit, confidence in quitting and both cessation and changes in CPD post-intervention.

However, parental smoking had no direct or indirect effects for males. Furthermore, having a friend who smokes had direct effects on baseline CPD for females; for males having a friend who smokes had indirect effects on motivation to quit, confidence in quitting, and cessation. These should be interpreted with Paula patton smoking to their limitations.

First, our sample consisted of adolescent who actively seeking to quit; as such, selection bias may have occurred among the sample. Next, although N-O-T programs are structured with standardized curriculum for the participants and standardized training for the facilitators, program fidelity is a concern given the hundreds of N-O-T sessions combined to form the present dataset. Finally, all data collected were self-report data from a single participant, potentially resulting in some degree of bias.

Limitations notwithstanding, the present findings highlight the importance of addressing gender differences among youth smokers seeking to quit, and add support for gender-tailored Paula patton smoking cessation interventions. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized in the modification and development of prevention and intervention efforts. Females were consistently surrounded by more smokers in their social environments: females were more likely to have parents, siblings and romantic partners who smoke.

Whereas both males and females had equal perceptions that parents would be supportive of a quit attempt, females were more likely to perceive that peers, siblings and romantic partners would be supportive. Although males and females had similar scores on the mFTQ, males were more likely to smoke Paula patton smoking after waking and to rate the first cigarette of the day as the most satisfying — two indicators reflecting greater nicotine uptake and dependence.

Female smokers were more likely to have a romantic partner, and that romantic partner was more likely to smoke.

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Among males, having friends who smoke had an indirect effect on both motivation to quit and confidence in quitting. For females having a parent who smokes had indirect effects on motivation to quit, confidence in quitting and changes in the of cigarettes per day post-intervention.

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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Addict Behav. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun 1. Steven A. Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Branstetter, Ph. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Addict Behav.

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See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Background Despite well-established gender differences in adult smoking behaviors, relatively little is known about gender discrepancies in smoking behaviors among adolescents, and even less is known about the role of gender in smoking cessation among teen populations. Conclusions Paula patton smoking plays an important role in adolescent smoking behavior and smoking cessation. 3. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Discussion The present study highlights gender differences in individual and contextual variables that may influence cessation.

Research Highlights. Footnotes Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Tobacco craving predicts lapse to smoking among adolescent smokers in cessation treatment. On tests and indices for evaluating structural models.

Personality and Individual Differences. American Journal of Public Health. Development and validation of a subjective expected utility measure of adolescent smoking; Paper presented at the 16th Annual Meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco; Baltimore, MD. Preventive Medicine. Cigarette smoking among adults and trends in smoking cessation - United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Gender differences in smoking and cessation behaviors among young adults after implementation of local comprehensive tobacco control.

Smoking cessation and gender: the influence of physiological, psychological, and behavioral factors. Gender differences in determinants of smoking initiation and persistence in California twins. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: Roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers.

Examination of a process model of adolescent smoking self-change efforts in relation to gender. A Pilot Study. Gender differences relative to smoking behavior and emissions of toxins from mainstream cigarette smoke. Dating and changes in adolescent cigarette smoking: Does partner smoking behavior matter? Time to first cigarette after waking predicts cotinine levels. Coping with temptations and adolescent smoking cessation: An initial investigation. Smoking cessation between teenage years and adulthood.

Health Education Research. The course of early smoking: a population-based cohort study over three years. Sex differences in long-term smoking cessation rates due to nicotine patch. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods. Predictors of smoking cessation in adolescents. Physical, psychological, social, and lifestyle differences among Paula patton smoking classified according to cigarette smoking intention status.

The Journal Of School Health. American Journal of Health Behavior. Predictors of smoking cessation in US adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy. Length of time being a current smoker months.

Perceived Support for Cessation. Smoke within 30 minute of waking. First cigarette of the day most satisfying.

Paula patton smoking

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